Damaging earthquakes occur in the Hindu Kush mountains.Flooding and droughts occur in the south and southwest of the country.The key challenge facing Afghanistan today is to build a genuine, indigenous national unity transcending tribal loyalties.
Damaging earthquakes occur in the Hindu Kush mountains.
Most vegetation is confined to the main ranges and their immediate off-shoots. Large conifers grow on the Safed Koh alpine range from 6,000 to 10,000 feet (1,800 to 3,000 meters).
Down to 3,000 feet (1,000 meters) grow wild olive, rock-rose, wild privet, acacias and mimosas.
Afghanistan has a dry, continental climate, with hot summers and cold winters.
The sun shines for three-quarters of the year—the nights are clearer than the days.
Waves of intense cold, lasting for several days, can reach 12°F below zero (minus 24°C).
In Kabul, the snow lies for two or three months—the people seldom leave their houses, and sleep close to stoves.
The lowest point is Amu Darya at 846 feet (258 meters).
Large parts of the country are dry, and fresh water supplies are limited.
In the Oxus regions, a shade maximum of 110°F to 120°F (45°C to 50°C) is not uncommon.
The summer rains that accompany the southwest monsoon in India travel up the Kabul valley as far as Laghman.