Students aren't the only ones having trouble deciphering the signs and taking them seriously; many adults, including those who work at schools or in other situations with young people, have trouble as well.
In addition, his research found that almost two-thirds of school principals don't believe that fellow students could play a key role in preventing teen dating violence or helping if a situation has already occurred.
Khubchandani also notes that the approach to how these issues are covered in trainings for faculty members, particularly guidance counselors, has changed drastically over time, and a lack of resources, school policies, and regular training for school officials means that even the most well-intentioned administrators aren't up-to-date on the best tactics for tackling these problems.
"Anytime we’re talking about our students and their safety, that’s of high importance to us," he said.
"We try to be very proactive in how we provide resources and support systems to kids."In 2010, the Indiana General Assembly passed a law requiring the Indiana Department of Education to develop dating violence educational materials and model policies for responding to and reporting incidents of teen dating violence.
Todd Bess, executive director of the Indiana Association of School Principals, said dating violence hasn't been a topic of conversation for the organization's membership but that principals do take student safety seriously.
teens are victims of physical, sexual, emotional or verbal abuse from a dating partner, according to data from the Domestic Violence Awareness Project.
Why don't more students and young people come forward when they see signs of intimate partner violence among their peers?
Melanie Sperling, chief of staff at One Love Foundation, tells that it's largely cultural.
One Stoneman Douglas student, Victoria Olvera, told the Associated Press after the attack that Cruz was allegedly abusive to an ex-girlfriend and fought her new boyfriend prior to the shooting.
reported that Cruz had even threatened to kill the young man, and at least three students had reported the shooter's behavior to school officials in years prior.