Chromosomes contain a variety of markers that can be used to compare diverse populations and infer an evolutionary relationship between them.
These include the slowly varying protein polymorphisms of coding regions which are useful for long-term trends, single nucleotide polymorphisms, and non-coding region changes (mutation rates about 2.5 x 10 per base pair per generation and useful for reconstructing evolutionary history only over millions of years) insertion and deletion events (about 8% of polymorphisms, extending from one to millions of nucleotides), particularly those driven by transposable elements such as the LINEs and even more frequent SINEs (p 332), non-coding micro-satellites (mutation rate 10 due to meiotic recombination in sperm) that both evolve rapidly and are not subject to the strong selection of coding regions which can differentiate changes over the much shorter time scales of modern human migration.
At times, I felt gorged on the opulent accounts of suffering, and pined to be shown more lime and earth, so to speak, and fewer arabesques.
Milton can also ram home a point as if he is loading a musket against unbelievers.
In fact, Ismail was a Neronic monster of unrivalled awfulness.
In the words of one French padre, "He dribbles continuously." Capricious, cruel, ignorant and vain, he dressed to kill - which he liked to do in red riding boots.
"It is one of his common diversions, at one motion to mount his horse, draw his scimitar, and cut off the head of the slave who holds his stirrup." Heads continually roll in Milton's narrative.
The sultan would order a man's decapitation by shrinking his head to his shoulder, "and then, with a very quick or sudden motion, extending it".
Our early human record speaks of a 100,000 year period of gatherer-hunter emergence in which women and men enjoyed a degree of reproductive autonomy and choice regained by our own societies only in part in the last century.
Homo sapiens has spent the vast majority of this time leaving only flaked tools with only minor changes of design, the social aspects of culture, which are not so easily left in artifacts may have become highly attuned to complex and subtle interactions.